Abstract: A kHz optical remote sensing system is implemented to determine insect melanization features. This is done by measuring the backscatter signal in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) in situ. It is shown that backscatter cross section in the SWIR is insensitive to melanization and absolute melanization can be derived from the ratio of backscatter cross section of different bands (SWIR/VIS-NIR). We have shown that reflectance from insect is stronger in the SWIR as compared to NIR and VIS. This reveals that melanization plays a big role to determine backscatter cross section. One can use this feature as a tool to improve insect species and age classification. To support the findings, we illustrated melanization feature using three different insects [dead, dried specimens of snow white moth (Spilosoma genus), fox moth (Macrothylacia), and leather beetle (Odontotaenius genus)]. It is shown that reflectance from the leather beetle in the VIS and NIR is more affected by melanization as compared with snow white moth.
Abstract: Insects are fundamental to ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, yet the study of insect movement, dispersal and activity patterns remains a challenge. Here we present results from a novel high resolution laser-radar (lidar) system for quantifying flying insect abundance recorded during one summer night in Sweden. We compare lidar recordings with data from a light trap deployed alongside the lidar. A total of 22808 insects were recorded, and the relative temporal quantities measured matched the quantities recorded with the light trap within a radius of 5 m. Lidar records showed that small insects (wing size <2.5 mm2 in cross-section) moved across the field and clustered near the light trap around 22:00 local time, while larger insects (wing size >2.5 mm2 in cross-section) were most abundant near the lidar beam before 22:00 and then moved towards the light trap between 22:00 and 23:30. We could distinguish three insect clusters based on morphology and found that two contained insects predominantly recorded above the field in the evening, whereas the third was formed by insects near the forest at around 21:30. Together our results demonstrate the capability of lidar for distinguishing different types of insects during flight and quantifying their movements.
See full article: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep29083
Abstract: We present measurements of atmospheric insect fauna intercepted by a static lidar transect over arable and pastoral land over one day. We observe nearly a quarter million of events which are calibrated to optical cross section. Biomass spectra are derived from the size distribution and presented against space and time. We discuss detection limits and instrument biasing, and we relate the insect observations to relevant ecological landscape features and land use. Future directions and improvements of the technique are also outlined.
See full article: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281645673_DAILY_EVOLUTION_OF_THE_INSECT_BIOMASS_SPECTRUM_IN_AN_AGRICULTURAL_LANDSCAPE_ACCESSED_WITH_LIDAR
Abstract: The benefits of kHz lidar in ecological entomology is explained. Results from kHz-measurements on insects, carried out with a CW-lidar system, employing the Scheimpflug principle to obtain range resolution, are presented. A method to extract insect events and analyze the large amount of lidar data is also described.
Abstract: In recent years, the field of remote sensing of birds and insects in the atmosphere (the aerial fauna) has advanced considerably, and modern electro-optic methods now allow the assessment of the abundance and fluxes of pests and beneficials on a landscape scale. These techniques have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of, and ability to quantify and manage, the ecological environment. This paper presents a concept whereby laser radar observations of atmospheric fauna can be parameterized and table values for absolute cross sections can be catalogued to allow for the study of focal species such as disease vectors and pests. Wing-beat oscillations are parameterized with a discrete set of harmonics and the spherical scatter function is parameterized by a reduced set of symmetrical spherical harmonics. A first order spherical model for insect scatter is presented and supported experimentally, showing angular dependence of wing beat harmonic content. The presented method promises to give insights into the flight heading directions of species in the atmosphere and has the potential to shed light onto the km-range spread of pests and disease vectors.
Abstract: Development of a novel versatile optical platform for active and passive remote sensing of environmental parameters is described. Applications include assessment of vegetation status and water quality. The system is also adapted for ecological studies, such as identification of flying insects including agricultural pests. The system is based on two mid-size amateur astronomy telescopes, continuous-wave diode lasers at different wavelengths ranging from violet to the near infrared, and detector facilities including quadrant photodiodes, two-dimensional and line scan charge-coupled device cameras, and a compact digital spectrometer. Application examples include remote Raman-laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of water quality at 120 m distance, and insect identification at kilometer ranges using the recorded wing-beat frequency and its spectrum of overtones. Because of the low cost this developmental platform is very suitable for advanced research projects in developing countries and has, in fact, been multiplied during hands-on workshops and is now being used by a number of groups at African universities.
See full article: https://www.osapublishing.org/as/abstract.cfm?uri=as-70-2-372
Abstract: Quantitative investigation of insect activity in their natural habitat is a challenging task for entomologists. It is difficult to address questions such as flight direction, predation strength, and overall activities using the current techniques such as traps and sweep nets. A multispectral kHz remote detection system using sunlight as an illumination source is presented. We explore the possibilities of remote optical classification of insects based on their wing-beat frequencies and iridescence features. It is shown that the wing-beat frequency of the fast insect events can be resolved by implementing high-sampling frequency. The iridescence features generated from the change of color in two channels (visible and near-infrared) during wing-beat cycle are presented. We show that the shape of the wing-beat trajectory is different for different insects. The flight direction of an atmospheric insect is also determined using a silicon quadrant detector.
Abstract: Assessment of biodiversity of pollinators on the landscape scale or estimation of fluxes of disease-transmitting biting midges constitutes a major technical challenge today. We have developed a laser-radar system for field entomology based on the so called Scheimpflug principle and a continuous-wave laser. The sample-rate of this method is unconstrained by the round-trip time of the light, and the method allows assessment of the fast oscillatory insect wing-beats and harmonics over kilometers range, e.g., for species identification and relating abundances to the topography. Whereas range resolution in conventional lidars is limited by the pulse duration, systems of the Scheimpflug type are limited by the diffraction of the telescopes. However, in the case of sparse occurrence of the atmospheric insects, where the optical cross-section oscillates, estimation of the range and spacing between individuals with a precision beyond the diffraction limit is now demonstrated. This enables studies of insect interaction processes in-situ.
See full article: http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier147/10.14101001.pdf
Abstract: A challenging task in ornithology lies in identifying high-altitude nocturnal migrating bird species and genders. While the current approaches including radar, lunar obscuration, and single-band thermal imaging provide means of detection, a more detailed spectral or polarimetric analysis of light has the potential for retrieval of additional information whereby the species and sex could be determined. In this paper, we explore remote classification opportunities provided by iridescent features within feathers in the mid-infrared region. Our approach first involves characterizing the microstructural features of the feather by using rotation and straining, and a scheme for their remote detection is proposed by correlating these microstructural changes to spectral and polarimetric effects. Furthermore, we simulate the spectral signature of the entire bird by using a model that demonstrates how classification would be achieved. Finally, we apply infrared hyperspectral polarization imaging, showing that the net iridescent effect persists for the bird as a whole.
See full article: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/3821425
Abstract: In this paper, a novel detection scheme for the monitoring of insect ecosystems is presented. Our method is based on the remote acquisition of passive sunlight scattering by two insect species. Procedures to identify rare events in remote dark-field spectroscopy are explained. We further demonstrate how to reduce the spectral representation, and how to discriminate between sexes, using a hierarchical clustering analysis. One-day cycle showing the temporal activities of the two sexes as well as data on activity patterns in relation to temperature and wind is presented. We also give a few examples of the potential use of the technique for studying interactions between sexes on a time scale of milliseconds.
Abstract: We present a method based on passive spectroscopy with aim to remotely study flying birds. A compact spectrometer is continuously recording spectra of a small section of the sky, waiting for birds to obscure part of the field-of-view when they pass the field in flight. In such situations the total light intensity received through the telescope, looking straight up, will change very rapidly as compared to the otherwise slowly varying sky light. On passage of a bird, both the total intensity and the spectral shape of the captured light changes notably. A camera aimed in the same direction as the telescope, although with a wider field-of-view, is triggered by the sudden intensity changes in the spectrometer to record additional information, which may be used for studies of migration and orientation. Example results from a trial are presented and discussed. The study is meant to explore the information that could be gathered and extracted with the help of a spectrometer connected to a telescope. Information regarding the color, size and height of flying birds is discussed. Specifically, an application for passive distance determination utilizing the atmospheric oxygen A-band absorption at around 760 nm is discussed.
See full article: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/2594833
Abstract: We present optical methods at a wide range of wavelengths for remote classification of birds. The proposed methods include eye-safe fluorescence and depolarization lidar techniques, passive scattering spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In this paper we refine our previously presented method of remotely classifying birds with the help of laser-induced beta-keratin fluorescence. Phenomena of excitation quenching are studied in the laboratory and are theoretically discussed in detail. It is shown how the ordered microstructures in bird feathers induce structural “colors” in the IR region with wavelengths of around 3-6 mu m. We show that transmittance in this region depends on the angle of incidence of the transmitted light in a species-specific way and that the transmittance exhibits a close correlation to the spatial periodicity in the arrangement of the feather barbules. We present a method by which the microstructure of feathers can be monitored in a remote fashion by utilization of thermal radiation and the wing beating of the bird.
See full article: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/2162234
Abstract: Results from field experiments using a fluorescence lidar system to monitor movements of insects are reported. Measurements over a river surface were made at distances between 100 and 300 m, detecting, in particular, damselflies entering the 355 nm pulsed laser beam. The lidar system recorded the depolarized elastic backscattering and two broad bands of laser-induced fluorescence, with the separation wavelength at 500 nm. Captured species, dusted with characteristic fluorescent dye powders, could be followed spatially and temporally after release. Implications for ecological research are discussed.
See full article: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1688039
Abstract: We present a method for remote classification of birds based on eye-safe fluorescence lidar techniques. Mechanisms of quenching are discussed. Plumage reflectance is related to plumage fluorescence. Laboratory measurements on reflectance and fluorescence are presented, as well as test-range measurements. Also we present examples of birds’ in-flight lidar returns. The methods are suitable for studies of night migrating species and high-altitude classification with implications for the detailed understanding of bird migration and global virus spread.
See full article: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1673461
Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of light detection and ranging (lidar) techniques to study migration of the damselfly species Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo. Laboratory and testing-range measurements at a distance of 60 m were performed using dried, mounted damselfly specimens. Laboratory measurements, including color photography in polarized light and spectroscopy of reflectance and induced fluorescence, reveal that damselflies exhibit reflectance and fluorescence properties that are closely tied to the generation of structural color. Lidar studies on C. splendens of both genders show that gender can be remotely determined, especially for specimens that were marked with Coumarin 102 and Rhodamine 6G dyes. The results obtained in this study will be useful for future field experiments, and provide guidelines for studying damselflies in their natural habitat using lidar to survey the air above the river surface. The findings will be applicable for many other insect species and should, therefore, bring new insights into migration and movement patterns of insects in general.
See full article: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1500148